Act 148 Business Outreach

Businesses such as restaurants, bakeries, and markets often have excess food going to waste which can be donated instead! This page describes the benefits and liability protections to food donors, along with some examples of businesses already practicing food donation.

How Does the Organics Section Act 148 Impact My Business?

All residents and businesses of Vermont will be required to compost or divert organics from landfills by 2020.

When Does this Impact my Business?

  • July 1, 2015: Food scrap generators of 52 tons/year (1 ton/week) must divert material to any certified facility within 20 miles
  • July 1, 2016: Food scrap generators of 26 tons/year (1/2 ton/week) must divert material to any certified facility within 20 miles
  • July 1, 2017: Food scrap generators of 18 tons/year (1/3 ton/week) must divert material to any certified  facility within 20 miles.
  • July 1, 2020: All Food Scrap is banned from the Landfill.

Calculate Food Scrap Generation

Learn More About Timeline

  • If you know of composters (from facilities, schools, businesses, community sites, etc.) that could use some technical assistance beyond what you provide, they can contact Compost Technical Services for free assistance (ANR/DEC funds this). Assistance includes everything from initial site planning and assessment to permitting support, custom management plans, and systems design. To learn more, contact James McSweeney at 802-224-6888 or

What are the benefits of donating food?

About 10% of Vermonters (64,370 people) are food insecure, meaning they don’t have regular access to nutritious food (Hunger Free Vermont). While donating food that would be wasted is not a solution, it can provide aid to those in need and reduce waste. to reducing poverty, it can provide aid for people in need to live fuller lives.

Direct Benefits for Businesses:

  • Save Money: Removing food waste from trash, will reduce the weight, cost and frequency of trash pickups.The cost of trash collection will be lower for businesses that donate food, since it affords less weight and fewer trash pickups. Additionally, food donations are federally recognized tax deductible charitable contributions for non-C corporations. Click the following link for more information on tax deductions.
  • Public and employee relations: Businesses and organizations that do the right thing receive positive publicity from the local community for food donations and community involvement. We will welcome companies to share success stories on our Facebook or submit for sharing on our website.certainly advertise your contributions on our website and Facebook! Additionally, chefs and other employees are much more fulfilled knowing that the food they make is eaten by people that need it instead of being sent to the landfill.

What Do I Do?

The good news is there are lots of environmentally friendly ways to divert your organics!

  • Food Hauler
  • Food Rescue
  • Food Pantry

The Agency of Natural Resources created a "Universal Recycling Materials Management Map" (Materials Management Map). This map connects residents and businesses with collection services and food rescue agencies in order to reduce waste and increase systems to manage food waste for beneficial uses.

How Do I Donate?

Prepared Meat

Unprepared Meat

Perishable Foods

Non-Perishable Foods

Vermont Food Haulers

Food Rescues

Did You Know? 

Food Hierarchy Pyramid

The Basics of Food Donation

  1. No need to worry about the liability of donating good food, you’re protected by Federal and State laws!
  2. Need a break? Food donation is considered a charitable contribution for tax deductions.
  3. It’s as simple as contacting a local food shelf, and following the state guidance for donating food safely. 

Many people think of food waste as a benign substance.

It rots down in the landfill anyway, so no problem, right?

Wrong! For food to compost properly, it needs light and air. In the landfill, it has neither. Instead, food without light and air produces methane gas, which contributes to global warming. It is estimated that we throw away one third of the food we buy each week!

Implementing Changes in Your Business

  1. Familiarize yourself with the Dept. of Environmental Conservation Donation Guidance for Businesses and Institutions.
  2. Find and contact a local food shelf or other hunger-fighting organization to learn what donations are acceptable.
  3. Meet with staff to decide when to pilot the food recovery project. Ensure everyone is familiar with Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) guidelines and/or ServSafe certified as a food handler.
  4. Pilot food recovery with a small amount of excess production at first. Then, work your way up to donating as much as the donee is able to handle. Label those dates on perishable food!
  5. Make sure to track your food donations including date, amount, type of food, stable temperature, and donation location.

Food Waste Success Stories


Universal Recycling Guidance for Businesses & Institutions

1. ANR Letter to  Food Scrap Haulers
2. FAQs Handout for Businesses & Institutions
3. Managing Food Scraps at Businesses & Institiutions
4. Statewide Directory of Food Scrap Haulers
5. Find a Vermont Composting Facility Near You Using the Materials Management Map
6. Webinar: Universal Recycling at Food Establishments


In addition to what most people would classify as a business, schools, municipal offices, and town garages are also considered businesses when it comes to disposing of hazardous waste.

If you use products that are corrosive, ignitable, reactive, or toxic, then you probably generate hazardous waste. Examples include solvents, paints, and vehicular fluids like motor oil, diesel fuel, and antifreeze, pesticides, cleaning solutions, and lab wastes. Fluorescent bulbs and some types of batteries are also considered hazardous.

If you use products that are corrosive, ignitable, reactive, or toxic, then you probably generate hazardous waste. Examples include solvents, paints, and vehicular fluids like motor oil, diesel fuel, and antifreeze, pesticides, cleaning solutions, and lab wastes. Consider "Greening Up" your business.

Many types of businesses and organizations create hazardous waste, including:

  • Construction and painting contractors
  • Printers
  • Equipment repair shops
  • Furniture refinishing shops
  • Laboratories
  • Dry cleaners
  • Metal manufacturing operations
  • Vehicle maintenance and auto body shops
  • Farmers, nurseries, landscapers (businesses using pesticides or herbicides)
  • Municipal entities – including schools, town offices, and town garages


Hazardous waste should not be disposed of with ordinary garbage, or poured into the sewer system, down storm drains, or onto the ground. If disposed of improperly, it can harm the environment, human beings, and wildlife. Proper hazardous waste management makes good business sense, too, and can reduce your economic liability for cleanups, reduce your insurance costs, and minimize employee exposures.

Hazardous waste should always be disposed of through an approved hazardous waste management or recycling facility. There are private companies that provide hazardous waste management services to businesses and organizations. Businesses that generate small quantities of hazardous waste are known as Conditionally Exempt Generators (CEGs). If your business or organization is a CEG, you may be eligible to dispose of your waste through an agreement between the Solid Waste Alliance Communities and the Rutland County Solid Waste Management District.

Does Your Business Qualify as a CEG? A Conditionally Exempt Generator:

  • Produces less than 220 pounds of hazardous waste each month (about 25 gallons of liquid waste that has a weight comparable to water);
  • Produces less than 2.2 pounds of acutely** hazardous waste each month;
  • Accumulates no more than 2,200 pounds of hazardous waste on site.

To determine whether you might be considered a CEG, estimate the waste you produce each month and inventory the hazardous waste currently on hand. If your business generates less than 220 pounds of hazardous waste per month and stores less than 2,200 pounds on site, you qualify as a CEG. If your business generates more than 220 pounds of hazardous waste per month or stores more than 2,200 pounds on site, you must manage your waste according to stricter regulations. For more information, call the Agency of Natural Resources, Waste Management Division at 802-241-3888 or visit review the current Regulations (effective October 1, 2004).  Here is a  small quantity generator handbook that you may find helpful.

What Are Your Disposal Options

The Rutland County Solid Waste Management District accepts business hazardous waste at its hazardous waste facility located at Gleason Road in Rutland, Vermont during regularly scheduled working hours.


If you plan on taking your waste to the Rutland County Solid Waste Distict Hazardous Waste Depot, it is necessary to schedule an appointment. Please call 775-7209 for additional information or to schedule an appointment.

Disposal Fees:

Disposal fees are based on the type and quantity of waste you bring to the facility or event. When you arrive for an appointment, your wastes will be inventoried. You will be charged a fee for the actual quantity of waste brought in rather than the volume of the container it is stored in. Businesses who use pesticides may dispose of their waste at no charge through a grant made possible by the Department of Agriculture (i.e. Nurseries, golf courses, farmers, landscapers, etc.) If you have questions about participating in the collection program, call 775-7209 for more information. If you have questions about what materials are considered hazardous waste, either of the above numbers or visit the Agency of Natural Resources website at Additional information as well as contact information are listed on the site.



As of July 1, 2007, it is illegal to dispose of mercury or products containing mercury (whether they are labelled or not) in Vermont landfills. This includes, but is not limited to, fluorescent bulbs and mercury containing lamps, laptops, mercury thermometers, mercury thermostats, all flat panel screens (example: computer monitors) or any other mercury containing device. Fluorescent lamps and electronic devices (computers, hand-held devices)  are collected at local transfer stations and approved collection locations throughout the county.  There may be disposal fees in place.  Check with your local transfer station for additional details.  All other mercury containing products can be taken to the RCSWD hazardous waste depot during normal operating hours. Businesses may pay a nominal disposal fee. Visit for detailed information.

An excellent Resources For Businesses

Does Your Business Generate Construction and Demolition Debris? (Clean wood waste, cardboard, sheetrock, or scrap metal)

The State of Vermont, Agency of Natural Resources maintains a C&D Waste Reduction Clearinghouse website. The database is used by applicants filling out their Act 250 Waste Reduction Plans. It can be used by contractors, builders, and homeowners as well.